Originally, Bongaigaon district was under the Judgeship of Goalpara district alongwith Dhubri and Kokrajhar district with headquarter at Dhubri. In the year of 1981 the erstwhile Goalpara district was divided into 3 (three) separate district namely - Goalpara, Dhubri and Kokrajhar. But after division of separate districts, the judicial function of the said districts was under the control of Goalpara district with headquarter at Dhubri, temporarily for few years.

The decision of creating a new district Bongaigaon, curving out some areas of the Goalpara and Kokrajhar district came into existence by the Government of Assam in 1989. And on 29th September, 1989 Bongaigaon was declared a separate district by the Government of Assam with its headquarter at Bongaigaon. And thus district judiciary of Bongaigaon district was bifurcated from the erstwhile Goalpara district which started functioning w.e.f. 30/10/1992. Thus the judgeship of four district i.e., Goalpara, Dhubri, Kokrajhar and Bongaigaon of erstwhile Goalpara district now functioning separately.
The name of Bongaigaon is the elongation of a fig and old village named Bongaigaon alias Bong-ai-gaon situated on the southern border of the town. According to hearsay in the long past there were plenty of wild (Bon) Cows (Gai) in the surrounding hilly and forest areas. So, the villagers assembled time to time to drive away the wild cows for protecting their crops. Thus this area was popularly known as Bon-Gai-Gaon.

The Judgeship of Bongaigaon district was created in the year of 1992 vide Govt. Notification No. JDJ.337/87/183, Dated 29/07/1992. The new court building of District & Sessions Judge, Bongaigaon was inaugurated by Mr. Justice Jasti Chelameswar, the then Chief Justice of Gauhati High Court, Guwahati on 29th Day of March 2009.

The Court of Additional District & Sessions Judge (Fast Track Court) Bongaigaon was created vide Govt. Notification No. JDJ(E)22/2001/22 dated 02/04/2001 and started functioning w.e.f. 01/06/2001. The Court of Civil Judge & Assistant Sessions Judge Bongaigaon was created vide Govt. Notification No. JDJ.129/83311 dated 19/05/1998 and started functioning w.e.f. 13/04/1999. The Court of Chief Judicial Magistrate Bongaigaon was created vide Govt. Notification No. JDJ.231/89/22 dated 02/02/1999 and started functioning w.e.f. 25/04/1999.

The Court of the Special Railway Magistrate was created vide Govt. Notification No. JDJ.(E)184/89/Pt-II/115 dated 21/11/2015 and started functioning w.e.f 26/09/2017. The SDJM (S), Bongaigaon acts as Special Railway Magistra of the districts in and around Bongaigaon i.e. Barpeta, Goalpara, Dhubri, Chirang, Baksa, Kokrajhar, in addition to his / her own duties.

Bongaigaon district judiciary has only one Sub-Division namely North Salmara with headquarter at Abhayapuri. The Court of Sub-Divisional Judicial Magistrate (Mufasil) at North Salmara, Abhayapuri was established on 24/04/1987 and the Court of Munsiff at North Salmara, Abhayapuri was established on 23/07/1988.

Before creation of the Chirang District Court, Bongaigaon has another Sub-Divisional Court namely Bijni with headquarter at Bijni. The Court of Sub-Divisional Judicial Magistrate (Mufasil) at Bijni and the Court of Munsiff at Bijni were established on 11/04/1997. After creation of the Chirang District Court, Bijni Sub-Division comes under the Chirang District Court.
Functioning Courts under the Judgeship of Bongaigaon District
Sl. No. Name of the Court Date of Establishment
1 District & Sessions Judge 30-10-1992
2 Additional District & Sessions Judge, FTC 01-06-2001
3 Civil Judge & Assistant. Sessions Judge 13-04-1999
4 Chief Judicial Magistrate 25-04-1990
5 Addl. Chief Judicial Magistrate 09-04-1999
6 Sub-Divisional Judicial Magistrate (Sadar) 14-03-1996
7 SDJM (M), North Salmara, Abhayapuri 24-04-1987
8 Munsiff-cum-JM 1st Class, Bongaigaon 19-09-1987
9 Munsiff-cum-JM 1st Class, North Salmara, Abhayapuri 23-07-1988
10 Special Railway Magistrate 26-09-2017

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